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高中英语语法总结:主谓一致

来源: 时间:2019/7/29 14:09:00 点击: 今日评论:
 ()并列主语的主谓一致

1.当两个或两个以上作主语的单数名词用and, both ...and连接,并表示两个不同的概念时,谓语动词用复数形式。and连接的并列名词如果表示同一人、事或概念,且后面的名词前没有限定词,谓语动词用单数形式,如the needle and thread, the fork and knife, iron and steel, mud and sand等。

Both tea and coffee are my favorites.

The writer and professor, who I often refer to at the meetings, is popular among those people.

2.由each, every, no修饰的名词作主语时,即使有and连接多个并列主语,谓语动词仍用单数形式。

No sound and (no) voice has been heard for a long time.

Every boy and every girl is treated in the same way in our school.

3.由or, nor, either ... or ..., neither ... nor ..., not only ... but also ...等连接并列主语时,谓语动词的单复数与它临近的主语保持一致。

Either you or I am going to be in charge of this matter.

4there be, here be后接几个并列名词时,谓语be动词的数遵循就近原则。

There is an orange and four bananas left.

()数词和量词作主语时的主谓一致

1分数+of/百分数+of/the rest of/plenty of/the majority of/lots of/a lot of/a quantity of+可数名词复数或不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词的单复数一般取决于of后名词的数。quantities of ...作主语时,谓语动词用复数。

About one third of the books are worth reading.

A quantity of water is needed for cooling purpose.

Quantities of water are needed for cooling purpose.

2a great deal of/a large amount of+不可数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数。large amounts of ...作主语,谓语动词用复数。

A large amount of grain has been eaten by birds.

Large amounts of grain have been eaten by birds.

3a number of, a variety of修饰名词作主语时,谓语动词用复数;the number of, the variety of后接名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

The number of the students in our class is 50, and a number of them are from Hebei.

A number of students have gone for an outing.

4.由kind, form, type, species, portion, series等修饰的主语,其谓语动词的单复数取决于这些词的数,而不是它们后面所跟名词的数。

Some new forms of art were discussed at the meeting.

 

()其他情况的主谓一致

1.当主语后带有as well as, as much as, no less than, with, along with, together with, like, rather than, but, except, besides, including, in addition to等连接的成分时,谓语动词的单复数取决于前面主语的单复数。

The house, including the garden and the park, was sold.

I think the boss, rather than the workers, was to blame for the loss.

2.在one of+复数名词+who/which/that引导的定语从句中,定语从句的谓语动词用复数。one前面如果有the only/very修饰,定语从句的谓语动词用单数。

This is one of the questions that have been asked by the students.

He is the only one of the officers who was invited to the ball.

3more than one/many a(n)+单数可数名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

More than one boy likes to play basketball while many a girl is good at playing baseball.

4.强调句it is/was ... that/who ...中,主句谓语总是用单数。

It is he who tells us the news.

5.不定式、动词­ing形式或从句作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

To obey the law is everyone's duty.

Eating too many sweets ruins your teeth.

Why he did it was very clear.

6.由两部分构成一个整体的物体名词如shoes, trousers, pants, jeans, glasses等作主语时,谓语动词用复数。但如果这类名词前用了a pair of, a piece of, a kind of, a series of等来修饰,谓语动词的单复数与表示计量单位的名词一致。

His trousers are too long to wear.

This pair of glasses was found in the bag.

 

语法填空解题3视角

1.看主语人称,确定谓语动词形式

2.看充当主语的词(短语),确定谓语动词形式

(1)看到主语为动名词短语/to do不定式或从句,要想到谓语应为第三人称单数形式;

(2)看到分数/百分数+of+名词作主语,要想到谓语的数取决于名词。

3.看到there be等结构,要想到用就近一致原则 

 

1.通过语法一致原则解决主谓一致问题

(1)可数名词单数或不可数名词作主语时谓语动词用单数;可数名词复数作主语时谓语动词用复数。

(2)在定语从句中,关系代词that, who, which等作主语时,其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。

(3)单个的动名词、名词性从句作主语,谓语动词一般用单数。what引导的主语从句表示复数概念时,谓语动词用复数。

(4)主语后跟有with, together with, as well as等引起的并列主语时,谓语动词的数要与前面的主语保持一致。

(5)复数形式单数意义的词,如news, maths, plastics, physics作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。

2.通过意义一致原则解决主谓一致问题

(1)集体名词作主语时,若被看作一个整体,谓语动词用单数形式;若被看作是构成集体的一个个成员,谓语动词用复数形式。常见的集体名词有:family, class, team, group, public, committee, government, audience等。

(2)“分数/百分数/the majorityof+名词作主语时,谓语动词的单复数取决于of后名词的数以及其表示的意义;all, some, half, most, the rest等作主语时,谓语动词的单复数取决于主语实际表达的意义。

3.通过就近一致原则解决主谓一致问题

either ...or ..., neither ...nor ..., not only ...but also ...等连接的并列主语或者在there be句型中,谓语动词常与最近的主语在人称和数上保持一致。

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